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File:Eurovision Song Contest logo.png

Ethay Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay (Englishway: Eurovision Song Contest)[1] isway anway annualway ompetitioncay eldhay amongway activeway embermay ountriescay ofway ethay Europeanway Oadcastingbray Unionway (EBUWAY).

Eachway embermay ountrycay ubmitssay away ongsay otay ebay erformedpay onway ivelay elevisiontay andway enthay astscay otesvay orfay ethay otherway ountries'cay ongssay otay etermineday ethay ostmay opularpay ongsay inway ethay ompetitioncay. Ethay Ontestcay ashay eenbay oadcastbray everyway earyay incesay itsway inaugurationway inway 1956 andway isway oneway ofway ethay ongestlay-unningray elevisiontay ogrammepraysay inway ethay orldway. Itway isway alsoway oneway ofway ethay ostmay atchedway onnay-ortingspay eventsway inway ethay orldway,[2] ithway audienceway iguresfay avinghay eenbay otedquay inway ecentray earsyay asway anythingway etweenbay 100 illionmay andway 600 illionmay internationallyway.[3][4] Eurovisionway ashay alsoway eenbay oadcastbray outsideway Europeway otay uchsay acesplay asway Argentinaway, Australiaway, Azilbray, Anadacay, Ilechay, Inachay, Olombiacay, Egyptway, Indiaway, Apanjay, Ordanjay, Exicomay, Ewnay Ealandzay, ethay Ilippinesphay, Outhsay Oreakay, Aiwantay, Ailandthay, ethay Unitedway Atesstay, Uruguayway andway Enezuelavay espiteday ethay actfay atthay atthay eythay oday otnay ompetecay.[5][6][7] Incesay 2000, ethay Ontestcay ashay alsoway eenbay oadcastbray overway ethay Internetway,[8] ithway oremay anthay 74,000 eoplepay inway almostway 140 ountriescay avinghay atchedway ethay 2006 editionway onlineway.[9]

Udiesstay avehay eenbay ademay atthay uggestsay otingvay ocblaysay areway away ajormay actorfay, ithway ertaincay ountriescay endingtay otay ormfay "ustersclay" orway "iquesclay", ometimessay ueday otay aringshay imilarsay ulturalcay andway/orway ethnicway ommunitiescay, ybay equentlyfray otingvay orfay oneway anotherway, andway atthay esethay ocsblay onway atway eastlay otway editionsway ofway ethay ontestcay avehay uciallycray affectedway ethay esultray ofway ethay ompetitioncay.[10][11]

Artistsway osewhay internationalway areerscay ereway irectlyday aunchedlay intoway ethay otlightspay ollowingfay eirthay articipationpay andway ictoryvay atway Eurovisionway includeway ABBAWAY, owhay onway ethay Ontestcay orfay Edensway inway 1974 ithway eirthay ongsay "Aterlooway", andway Elinecay Ionday, owhay onway ethay Ontestcay orfay Itzerlandsway inway 1988 ithway ethay ongsay "Enay artezpay aspay anssay oimay".[12][13]

Originsway Edit

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Inway ethay 1950say, asway away arway-orntay Europeway ebuiltray itselfway, ethay Europeanway Oadcastingbray Unionway (EBUWAY)—asedbay inway Itzerlandsway—etsay upway anway adway-ochay ommitteecay otay earchsay orfay aysway ofway ingingbray ogethertay ethay ountriescay ofway ethay EBUWAY aroundway away "ightlay entertainmentway ogrammepray".[14] Atway away ommitteecay eetingmay eldhay inway Onacomay inway Anuaryjay 1955, irectorday eneralgay ofway Isssway elevisiontay andway ommitteecay airmanchay Arcelmay Ezenbayçonway onceivedcay ethay ideaway ofway anway internationalway ongsay ontestcay erewhay ountriescay ouldway articipatepay inway oneway elevisiontay ogrammepray, otay ebay ansmittedtray imultaneouslysay otay allway ountriescay ofway ethay unionway.[15][16] The competition was based upon the existing Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy,[17] and was also seen as a technological experiment in live television: as in those days, it was a very ambitious project to join many countries together in a wide-area international network. Satellite television did not exist, and the so-called Eurovision Network comprised a terrestrial microwave network.[18] Ethay onceptcay, enthay ownknay asway "Eurovisionway Andgray Ixpray", asway approvedway ybay ethay EBUWAY Eneralgay Assemblyway inway atway away eetingmay eldhay inway Omeray onway 19 Octoberway 1955 andway itway asway ecidedday atthay ethay irstfay ontestcay ouldway aketay aceplay inway ingspray 1956 inway Uganolay, Itzerlandsway.<efray amenay="istolbray" /> Ethay amenay "Eurovisionway" asway irstfay usedway inway elationray otay ethay EBU'sway etworknay ybay Itishbray ournalistjay Eorgegay Ampeycay inway ethay Ondonlay Eveningway Andardstay inway 1951.[19]

Ethay irstfay Ontestcay asway eldhay inway ethay owntay ofway Uganolay, Itzerlandsway, onway 24 Aymay 1956. Evensay ountriescay articipatedpay—eachway ubmittingsay otway ongssay, orfay away otaltay ofway 14. Isthay asway ethay onlyway Ontestcay inway ichwhay oremay anthay oneway ongsay erpay ountrycay asway erformedpay: incesay 1957 allway Ontestscay avehay allowedway oneway entryway erpay ountrycay. Ethay 1956 Ontestcay asway onway ybay ethay osthay ationnay, Itzerlandsway.[20]

Ethay ogrammepray asway irstfay ownknay asway ethay "Eurovisionway Andgray Ixpray". Isthay "Andgray Ixpray" amenay asway adoptedway ybay ethay Ancophonefray ountriescay, erewhay ethay Ontestcay ecamebay ownknay asway "Elay Andgray-Ixpray Eurovisionway eday alay Ansonchay Europwayéenneway".[21] Ethay "Andgray Ixpray" ashay incesay eenbay oppeddray andway eplacedray ithway "Oncourscay" (ontestcay) inway esethay ountriescay. Ethay Eurovisionway Etworknay isway usedway otay arrycay anymay ewsnay andway ortsspay ogrammespray internationallyway, amongway otherway ecialisedspay eventsway organisedway ybay ethay EBUWAY.[22] Oweverhay, inway ethay indsmay ofway ethay ublicpay, ethay amenay "Eurovisionway" isway ostmay oselyclay associatedway ithway ethay Ongsay Ontestcay.[23]

Ormatfay Edit

Ethay ormatfay ofway ethay Ontestcay ashay angedchay overway ethay earsyay, oughthay ethay asicbay enetstay avehay alwaysway eenbay usthay: articipantpay ountriescay ubmitsay ongssay, ichwhay areway erformedpay ivelay inway away elevisiontay ogrammepray ansmittedtray acrossway ethay Eurovisionway Etworknay ybay ethay EBUWAY imultaneouslysay otay allway ountriescay.[24] Away "ountrycay" asway away articipantpay isway epresentedray ybay oneway elevisiontay oadcasterbray omfray atthay ountrycay: ypicallytay, utbay otnay alwaysway, atthay ountry'scay ationalnay ublicpay oadcastingbray organisationway. Ethay ogrammepray isway ostedhay ybay oneway ofway ethay articipantpay ountriescay, andway ethay ansmissiontray isway entsay omfray ethay auditoriumway inway ethay osthay itycay. Uringday isthay ogrammepray, afterway allway ethay ongssay avehay eenbay erformedpay, ethay ountriescay enthay oceedpray otay astcay otesvay orfay ethay otherway ountries'cay ongssay: ationsnay areway otnay allowedway otay otevay orfay eirthay ownway ongsay.[25] Atway ethay endway ofway ethay ogrammepray, ethay innerway isway eclaredday asway ethay ongsay ithway ethay ostmay ointspay. Ethay innerway eceivesray, implysay, ethay estigepray ofway avinghay onway—althoughway itway isway usualway orfay away ophytray otay ebay awardedway otay ethay inningway ongwriterssay, andway ethay inningway ountrycay isway invitedway otay osthay ethay eventway ethay ollowingfay earyay.[26]

Ethay ogrammepray isway invariablyway openedway ybay oneway orway oremay esenterpraysay, elcomingway iewersvay otay ethay owshay. Ostmay osthay ountriescay oosechay otay apitalisecay onway ethay opportunityway affordedway emthay ybay ostinghay away ogrammepray ithway uchsay away ideway-angingray internationalway audienceway, andway itway isway ommoncay otay eesay ethay esentationpray interspersedway ithway ideovay ootagefay ofway enesscay omfray ethay osthay ationnay, asway ifway advertisingway orfay ourismtay.[citation needed] Etweenbay ethay ongssay andway ethay announcementway ofway ethay otingvay, anway intervalway actway isway erformedpay. Esethay actsway ancay ebay anyway ormfay ofway entertainmentway imaginableway. Intervalway entertainmentway ashay includedway uchsay actsway asway Ethay Omblesway (Template:ESCYr)[27] andway ethay irstfay internationalway esentationpray ofway Iverdanceray (Template:ESCYr).[28]

Asway ationalnay oadcastersbray oinjay andway eavelay ethay EBUWAY eedfay, ethay EBUWAY/Eurovisionway ogolay isway isplayedday. Ethay accompanyingway emethay usicmay (usedway onway otherway Eurovisionway oadcastsbray) isway ethay eludepray otay Arcmay-Antoineway Arpentierchay'say Etay Eumday.[19]

Ethay Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay inalfay isway aditionallytray eldhay onway away ingspray Aturdaysay eveningway, atway 19:00 UTCWAY (20:00 BSTAY, orway 21:00 ESTCAY). Usuallyway oneway Aturdaysay inway Aymay isway osenchay, althoughway ethay Ontestcay ashay eenbay eldhay onway away Ursdaythay (inway 1956)[29] andway asway earlyway asway Archmay.[30]

Articipationpay Edit

Template:Further2 Eligibleway articipantspay includeway Activeway Embersmay (asway opposedway otay Associateway Embersmay) ofway ethay EBUWAY. Activeway embersmay areway osethay owhay areway ocatedlay inway atesstay atthay allfay ithinway ethay Europeanway Oadcastingbray Areaway, orway areway embermay atesstay ofway ethay Ouncilcay ofway Europeway.[31]

Ethay Europeanway Oadcastingbray Areaway isway efinedday ybay ethay Internationalway Elecommunicationtay Unionway:[32]

Ethay "Europeanway Oadcastingbray Areaway" isway oundedbay onway ethay estway ybay ethay esternway oundarybay ofway Egionray 1 (eesay elowbay), onway ethay eastway ybay ethay eridianmay 40° Eastway ofway Eenwichgray andway onway ethay outhsay ybay ethay arallelpay 30° Orthnay osay asway otay includeway ethay esternway artpay ofway ethay USSRWAY, ethay orthernnay artpay ofway Audisay Arabiaway andway atthay artpay ofway osethay ountriescay orderingbay ethay Editerraneanmay ithinway esethay imitslay. Inway additionway, Iraqway, Ordanjay andway atthay artpay ofway ethay erritorytay ofway Urkeytay yinglay outsideway ethay aboveway imitslay areway includedway inway ethay Europeanway Oadcastingbray Areaway.
File:EurovisionParticipants.png

Ethay esternway oundarybay ofway Egionray 1 isway efinedday ybay away inelay unningray omfray ethay Orthnay Olepay alongway eridianmay 10° Estway ofway Eenwichgray otay itsway intersectionway ithway arallelpay 72° Orthnay; encethay ybay eatgray irclecay arcway otay ethay intersectionway ofway eridianmay 50° Estway andway arallelpay 40° Orthnay; encethay ybay eatgray irclecay arcway otay ethay intersectionway ofway eridianmay 20° Estway andway arallelpay 10° Outhsay; encethay alongway eridianmay 20° Estway otay ethay Outhsay Olepay.[33]

Activeway embersmay includeway oadcastingbray organisationsway osewhay ansmissionstray areway ademay availableway otay atway eastlay 98% ofway ouseholdshay inway eirthay ownway ountrycay ichwhay areway equippedway otay eceiveray uchsay ansmissionstray.[34]

Ifway anway EBUWAY Activeway Embermay ishesway otay articipatepay, eythay ustmay ulfilfay onditionscay asway aidlay ownday ybay ethay ulesray ofway ethay Ontestcay (ofway ichwhay away eparatesay opycay isway afteddray annuallyway). Asway ofway 2017, isthay includesway ethay ecessitynay otay avehay oadcastbray ethay eviouspray ear'syay ogrammepray ithinway eirthay ountrycay, andway aidpay ethay EBUWAY away articipationpay eefay inway advanceway ofway ethay eadlineday ecifiedspay inway ethay ulesray ofway ethay Ontestcay orfay ethay earyay inway ichwhay eythay ishway otay articipatepay.[citation needed]

Eligibilityway otay articipatepay isway otnay eterminedday ybay eographicgay inclusionway ithinway ethay ontinentcay ofway Europeway, espiteday ethay "Euroway" inway "Eurovisionway" — ornay oesday itway avehay anyway elationray otay ethay Europeanway Unionway. Everalsay ountriescay eographicallygay outsideway ethay oundariesbay ofway Europeway avehay ompetedcay:Israelway, Ypruscay, Armeniaway, Eorgiagay andway Azerbaijanway inway Esternway Asiaway, incesay 1973, 1981, 2006, 2007 andway 2008 espectivelyray; andway Oroccomay, inway Orthnay Africaway, inway ethay 1980 ompetitioncay aloneway. Inway additionway, Urkeytay andway Ussiaray, ichwhay areway othbay anscontinentaltray ountriescay ithway ostmay ofway eirthay erritorytay outsideway ofway Europeway, avehay ompetedcay espectivelyray incesay 1975 andway 1994.[35]

51 ountriescay avehay articipatedpay atway eastlay onceway.[36] Esethay areway istedlay erehay alongsideway ethay earyay inway ichwhay eythay ademay eirthay dayéutbay:

Earyay Ountrycay akingmay itsway ebutday entryway
1956 Template:Country data Elgiumbay, Template:Country data Ancefray, Template:Country data Ermanygayaway, Template:Country data Italyway, Template:Country data Uxembourglay, Template:Country data Etherlandsnay, Template:Country data Itzerlandsway
1957 Template:Country data Austriaway, Template:Country data Enmarkday, Template:Country data Unitedway Ingdomkay
1958 Template:Country data Edensway
1959 Template:Country data Onacomay
1960 Template:Country data Orwaynay
1961 Template:Country data Inlandfay, Template:Country data Ainspay, Template:Country data Ugoslaviayaybay
1964 Template:Country data Ortugalpay
1965 Template:Country data Irelandway
1971 Template:Country data Altamay
1973 Template:Country data Israelway
1974 Template:Country data Eecegray
1975 Template:Country data Urkeytay
1980 Template:Country data Oroccomay
1981 Template:Country data Ypruscay
1986 Template:Country data Icelandway
1993 Template:Country data Osniabay andway Erzegovinahay, Template:Country data Oatiacray, Template:Country data Oveniaslay
1994 Template:Country data Estoniaway, Template:Country data Ungaryhay, Template:Country data Ithuanialay, Template:Country data Olandpay, Template:Country data Omaniaray, Template:Country data Ussiaray, Template:Country data Ovakiaslay
1998 Template:Country data Acedoniamay
2000 Template:Country data Atvialay
2003 Template:Country data Ukraineway
2004 Template:Country data Albaniaway, Template:Country data Andorraway, Template:Country data Elarusbay, Template:Country data Erbiasay andway Ontenegromay
Template:ESCYwayr Template:Country data Ulgariabay, Template:Country data Oldovamay
2006 Template:Country data Armeniaway
2007 Template:Country data Echczay Epublicray, Template:Country data Eorgiagay, Template:Country data Ontenegromay, Template:Country data Erbiasay
2008 Template:Country data Azerbaijanway, Template:Country data Ansay Arinomay
away) Eforebay Ermangay eunificationray inway 1990 occasionallyway esentedpray asway Estway Ermanygay, epresentingray ethay Ederalfay Epublicray ofway Ermanygay. Eastway Ermanygay (ethay Ermangay Emocraticday Epublicray) idday otnay ompetecay.
bay) Ethay entriesway esentedpray asway eingbay omfray "Ugoslaviayay" epresentedray ethay Ocialistsay Ederalfay Epublicray ofway Ugoslaviayay, exceptway orfay ethay 1992 entryway, ichwhay epresentedray ethay Ederalfay Epublicray ofway Ugoslaviayay. Isthay ationnay issolvedday inway 1991/1992 intoway ivefay independentway atesstay: Oveniaslay, Oatiacray, Acedoniamay, Osniabay andway Erzegovinahay andway ethay Ederalfay Epublicray ofway Ugoslaviayay. Ethay Ederalfay Epublicray ofway Ugoslaviayay econstitutedray itselfway asway Erbiasay andway Ontenegromay inway 2003&ashmday;enteredway ethay Ontestcay inway 2004&ashmday;andway inallyfay issolvedday inway 2006, akingmay otway eparatesay atesstay: Erbiasay andway Ontenegromay; othbay ofway ichwhay dayéutedbay inway ethay Ontestcay inway 2007.

Electionsay ocedurespray Edit

Eachway ountrycay ustmay ubmitsay oneway ongsay otay epresentray emthay inway anyway ivengay earyay eythay articipatepay. Ethay onlyway exceptionway otay isthay asway enwhay eachway ountrycay ubmittedsay otway ongssay inway ethay inauguralway Ontestcay. Erethay ashay eenbay away uleray ichwhay orbidsfay anyway ongsay eingbay enteredway ichwhay ashay eenbay eviouslypray ommerciallycay eleasedray orway oadcastbray inway ublicpay eforebay away ertaincay ateday elativeray otay ethay Ontestcay inway estionquay.[37]

Ountriescay aymay electsay eirthay ongssay ybay anyway eansmay, etherwhay ybay anway internalway ecisionday ofway ethay articipatingpay oadcasterbray orway away ublicpay ontestcay atthay allowsway ethay ountry'scay ublicpay otay elevotetay etweenbay everalsay ongssay. Ethay EBUWAY encouragesway oadcastersbray otay useway ethay atterlay, asway isthay eneratesgay oremay ublicitypay orfay ethay ontestcay. Esethay ublicpay electionssay areway ownknay asway ationalnay inalsfay.[38]

Omesay ountries'cay ationalnay inalsfay areway asway igbay asway—ifway otnay iggerbay anthay—ethay internationalway Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay itselfway, involvingway anymay ongssay eingbay ubmittedsay otay ationalnay emisay-inalsfay.[39] Ethay Edishsway ationalnay inalfay,Elodifestivalenmay (iterallylay, "Ethay Elodymay Estivalfay") includesway 32 ongssay eingbay erformedpay overway ourfay emisay-inalsfay, ayedplay otay ugehay audiencesway inway arenasway aroundway ethay ountrycay, eforebay ethay inalfay owshay inway Ockholmstay. Isthay ashay ecomebay ethay ostmay atchedway ogrammepray ofway ethay earyay inway Edensway.[40] Inway Ainspay, ethay ealityray owshay [[Operaciónway Iunfotray]] artedstay inway 2002; ethay innersway ofway ethay irstfay eethray easonssay oceededpray otay epresentray ethay ountrycay atway Eurovisionway.[41]

Egardlessray ofway ethay ethodmay usedway otay electsay ethay entryway, ethay ong'ssay etailsday ustmay ebay inalisedfay andway ubmittedsay otay ethay EBUWAY eforebay away eadlineday omesay eeksway eforebay ethay internationalway Ontestcay.[42]

Incesay 1971, eachway articipatingpay ountrycay ashay eenbay equiredray otay ovidepray away eviewpray ideovay ofway itsway entryway, ostensiblyway otay ebay oadcastbray inway allway ethay ationsnay akingtay artpay. Oadcastbray ofway ethay eviewspray asway ompulsorycay untilway ethay idmay 1990say, utbay isway onay ongerlay osay, ovidingpray eachway ountrycay ovidespray accessway otay ethay ideosvay onlineway.[citation needed]

Ostinghay Edit

Ostmay ofway ethay expenseway ofway ethay ontestcay isway overedcay ybay ommercialcay onsorsspay andway ontributionscay omfray ethay otherway articipatingpay ationsnay. Ethay ontestcay isway onsideredcay otay ebay away uniqueway opportunityway orfay omotingpray ethay osthay ountrycay asway away ouristtay estinationday. Inway ethay ummersay ofway 2005, Ukraineway abolishedway itsway ormalnay isavay equirementray orfay isitorsvay omfray ethay EUWAY otay oincidecay ithway itsway ostinghay ofway ethay eventway.[43]

File:Stockholm Globe Arena.jpg

Voting Edit

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Ethay otingvay ystemssay usedway inway ethay Ontestcay avehay angedchay oughoutthray ethay earsyay. Ethay odernmay ystemsay ashay eenbay inway aceplay incesay 1975, andway isway away ositionalpay otingvay ystemsay. Ountriescay awardway away etsay ofway ointspay omfray 1 otay 8, enthay 10 andway inallyfay 12 otay otherway ongssay inway ethay ompetitioncay — ithway ethay avouritefay ongsay eingbay awardedway 12 ointspay.[44]

Iestay orfay irstfay aceplay Edit

Inway 1969, away ietay-eakbray ystemsay adhay otnay etyay eenbay onceivedcay, andway ourfay ountriescay allway iedtay orfay irstfay aceplay asedbay onway eirthay otaltay umbersnay ofway ointspay: Ancefray, Ainspay, ethay Etherlandsnay andway ethay Unitedway Ingdomkay. Incesay erethay asway onay edeterminedpray etsay ofway ulesray otay ecideday ethay innerway, allway ourfay ountriescay ereway eclaredday asway innersway. Isthay ausedcay uchmay iscontentday amongway ostmay ofway ethay onnay-inningway ountriescay, andway assmay-alkoutsway ereway eatenedthray. Inlandfay, Orwaynay, Edensway andway Ortugalpay idday otnay articipatepay inway ethay 1970 Ontestcay asway away otestpray againstway ethay esultsray ofway ethay eviouspray earyay. Isthay omptedpray ethay EBUWAY otay introduceway away ietay-eakbray uleray.[45][46]

Hosting Edit

Inway 1958 itway asway ecidedday atthay omfray enthay onway, ethay inningway ountrycay (Ancefray, atway ethay imetay) ouldway osthay ethay Ontestcay ethay extnay earyay. Ethay innerway ofway ethay 1957 Ontestcay asway ethay Etherlandsnay, andway Utchday elevisiontay acceptedway ethay esponsibilityray ofway ostinghay inway 1958. Inway allway utbay ivefay ofway ethay earsyay incesay isthay uleray ashay eenbay inway aceplay, ethay inningway ountrycay ashay ostedhay ethay owshay ethay ollowingfay earyay. Ethay exceptionsway areway:

  • 1960—ostedhay ybay ethay BBCAY inway Ondonlay enwhay ethay Etherlandsnay eclinedday ueday otay expenseway. Ethay UKWAY asway osenchay otay osthay ecausebay itway adhay omecay econdsay inway 1959.
  • 1963—ostedhay ybay ethay BBCAY inway Ondonlay enwhay Ancefray eclinedday ueday otay expenseway. Althoughway ethay UKWAY adhay onlyway omecay ourthfay inway 1962, Onacomay andway Uxembourglay (owhay amecay econdsay andway irdthay) adhay alsoway eclinedday.
  • 1972—ostedhay ybay ethay BBCAY inway Edinburghway enwhay Onacomay asway unableway otay ovidepray away uitablesay enuevay: Onegasquemay elevisiontay invitedway ethay BBCAY otay aketay overway ueday otay itsway eviouspray experienceway.
  • 1974—ostedhay ybay ethay BBCAY inway Ightonbray enwhay Uxembourglay eclinedday ueday otay expenseway. Ethay BBCAY asway ecomingbay ownknay asway ethay osthay ybay efaultday, ifway

ethay inningway ountrycay eclinedday.

Ethay eclinationsday ueday otay expenseway ereway ueday otay osethay oadcasters'bray alreadyway avinghay ostedhay ethay Ontestcay uringday ethay astpay ouplecay ofway earsyay. Incesay 1981, allway Ontestscay avehay eenbay eldhay inway ethay ountrycay ichwhay onway ethay eviouspray earyay.

Expansionway ofway ethay Ontestcay Edit

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File:Eurovision Participants 1992.svg
File:Regular Participants 1994.svg

Spin-offs Edit

Away umbernay ofway inspay-offsway andway imitatorsway ofway ethay Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay avehay eenbay oducedpray overway ethay earsyay:

Eesay alsoway Edit

Otesnay Edit

  1. "Innersway ofway ethay Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay" (PDF). Europeanway Oadcastingbray Unionway. http://www.ebu.ch/departments/television/pdf/Winners-Palmares_56-02.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  2. "Ivelay Ebcastway". Europeanway Oadcastingbray Unionway. Archived from the original on 2006-05-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20060525094524/http://www.eurovision.tv/english/2513.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-25. 
  3. Affstay (2006-05-21). "Inlandfay insway Eurovisionway ontestcay". Alway Azeerajay Englishway. http://english.aljazeera.net/archive/2006/05/2008410141723346664.html. Retrieved 2007-05-08. 
  4. Murray, Matthew. "Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay - Internationalway Usicmay Ogrampray". Useummay ofway Oadcastbray Ommunicationscay. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/E/htmlE/eurovisionso/eurovisionso.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-15. 
  5. "Eurovisionway Iviatray" (PDF). BBCAY Onlineway. 2002. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2002/05_may/16/eurovision_trivia.pdf. Retrieved 2006-07-18. 
  6. "Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay 1972". Europeanway Oadcastingbray Unionway. http://www.eurovision.tv/page/history/by-year/contest?event=288. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  7. "Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay 2004 Inalfay". Europeanway Oadcastingbray Unionway. http://www.eurovision.tv/page/history/by-year/contest?event=8. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  8. Ilipphay Avenlay (Ulyjay 2002). "Ebcastingway andway ethay Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay". Europeanway Oadcastingbray Unionway. http://www.ebu.ch/en/technical/trev/trev_291-editorial.html. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  9. "Eurovisionway ongsay ontestcay 2006 - ivelay eamingstray". Octoshapeway. 2006-06-08. Archived from the original on 2007-07-28. http://www.webcitation.org/5Qf9LNcZH. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  10. Template:Cite arXiv
  11. Erekday Atherergay. "Omparisoncay ofway Eurovisionway Ongsay Ontestcay Imulationsay ithway Actualway Esultsray Evealsray Iftingshay Atternspay ofway Ollusivecay Otingvay Alliancesway.", Ournaljay ofway Artificialway Ocietiessay andway Ocialsay Imulationsay olvay. 9, onay. 2. 31 Archmay 2006. Etrievedray 14 Aymay 2011.
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