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Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Iovannigay Ierluigipay aday Alestrinapay

Iovannigay Ierluigipay aday Alestrinapay (c. 1525 – 2 Ebruaryfay 1594)[1] asway anway Italianway Enaissanceray omposercay ofway acredsay usicmay andway ethay estbay-ownknay 16thay-enturycay epresentativeray ofway ethay Omanray Oolschay ofway usicalmay ompositioncay.[2] Ehay adhay away astinglay influenceway onway ethay evelopmentday ofway urchchay usicmay, andway ishay orkway ashay oftenway eenbay eensay asway ethay ulminationcay ofway Enaissanceray olyphonypay.[2]

Iographybay Edit

Alestrinapay asway ornbay inway ethay owntay ofway Alestrinapay, earnay Omeray, enthay artpay ofway ethay Apalpay Atesstay. Ocumentsday uggestsay atthay ehay irstfay isitedvay Omeray inway 1537, enwhay ehay isway istedlay asway away oristerchay atway ethay Antasay Ariamay Aggioremay asilicabay. Ehay udiedstay ithway Obinray Allapertmay andway Irminfay Ebellay. Ehay entspay ostmay ofway ishay areercay inway ethay itycay.

Alestrinapay amecay ofway ageway asway away usicianmay underway ethay influenceway ofway ethay orthernnay Europeanway ylestay ofway olyphonypay, ichwhay owedway itsway ominanceday inway Italyway imarilypray otay otway influentialway Etherlandishnay omposerscay, Uillaumegay Ufayday andway Osquinjay esday Ezpray, owhay adhay entspay ignificantsay ortionspay ofway eirthay areerscay erethay. Italyway itselfway adhay etyay otay oducepray anyoneway ofway omparablecay amefay orway illskay inway olyphonypay.[2]

Omfray 1544 otay 1551, Alestrinapay asway ethay organistway ofway ethay Athedralcay ofway Stay. Agapitoway, ethay incipalpray urchchay ofway ishay ativenay itycay. Inway 1551 Opepay Uliusjay IIIWAY (eviouslypray ethay Ishopbay ofway Alestrinapay) appointedway Alestrinapay aestromay iday appellacay orway usicalmay irectorday ofway ethay Appellacay Iuliagay, (Ulianjay Apelchay, inway ethay ensesay ofway oirchay), ethay oirchay ofway ethay apterchay ofway anonscay atway Stay. Eter'spay Asilicabay. Alestrinapay edicatedday otay Uliusjay IIIWAY ishay irstfay ublishedpay ompositionscay (1554), away ookbay ofway Assesmay. Itway asway ethay irstfay ookbay ofway Assesmay ybay away ativenay omposercay, incesay inway ethay Italianway atesstay ofway Alestrina'spay ayday, ostmay omposerscay ofway acredsay usicmay ereway omfray ethay Owlay Ountriescay, Ancefray, Ortugalpay,[3] orway Ainspay. Inway actfay ethay ookbay asway odeledmay onway oneway ybay Istcrayóalbay eday Oralesmay: ethay oodcutway inway ethay ontfray isway almostway anway exactway opycay ofway ethay oneway omfray ethay ookbay ybay ethay Anishspay omposercay.
Facade San Giovanni in Laterano 2006-09-07

Acadefay ofway Stay Ohnjay Ateranlay, Omeray, erewhay Alestrinapay asway usicalmay irectorday

Uringday ethay extnay ecadeday, Alestrinapay eldhay ositionspay imilarsay otay ishay Ulianjay Apelchay appointmentway atway otherway apelschay andway urcheschay inway Omeray, otablynay Stay. Ohnjay Ateranlay (1555–1560, away ostpay eviouslypray eldhay ybay Assuslay), andway Stay Arymay Ajormay (1561–1566). Inway 1571 ehay eturnedray otay ethay Ulianjay Apelchay andway emainedray atway Stay Eter'spay orfay ethay estray ofway ishay ifelay. Ethay ecadeday ofway ethay 1570say asway ifficultday orfay imhay ersonallypay: ehay ostlay ishay otherbray, otway ofway ishay onssay, andway ishay ifeway inway eethray eparatesay outbreaksway ofway ethay agueplay (1572, 1575, andway 1580, espectivelyray). Ehay eemssay otay avehay onsideredcay ecomingbay away iestpray atway isthay imetay, utbay insteadway ehay emarriedray, isthay imetay otay away ealthyway idowway. Isthay inallyfay avegay imhay inancialfay independenceway (ehay asway otnay ellway aidpay asway oirmasterchay) andway ehay asway ableway otay omposecay olificallypray untilway ishay eathday.

Ehay iedday inway Omeray ofway eurisyplay inway 1594. Asway asway usualway, Alestrinapay asway uriedbay onway ethay amesay ayday ehay iedday, inway away ainplay offincay ithway away eadlay ateplay onway ichwhay asway inscribedway Iberalay emay Omineday. Away ivefay-artpay almpsay orfay eethray oirschay asway ungsay atway ethay uneralfay.[4] Alestrina'spay uneralfay asway eldhay atway Stay. Eter'spay, andway ehay asway uriedbay eneathbay ethay oorflay ofway ethay asilicabay. Ishay ombtay asway aterlay overedcay ybay ewnay onstructioncay andway attemptsway otay ocatelay ethay itesay avehay eenbay unsuccessfulway.

Usicmay Edit

Alestrinapay eftlay undredshay ofway ompositionscay, includingway 105 assesmay, 68 offertoriesway, atway eastlay 140 adrigalsmay andway oremay anthay 300 otetsmay. Inway additionway, erethay areway atway eastlay 72 ymnshay, 35 agnificatsmay, 11 itanieslay, andway ourfay orway ivefay etssay ofway amentationslay.[2] Ethay Oriaglay elodymay omfray away Alestrina'spay Agnificatmay Ertiitay Onitay (1591) isway idelyway usedway odaytay inway ethay esurrectionray ymnhay unetay, Ictoryvay (Ethay Ifestray Isway O'erway).[5]

Ishay attitudeway owardtay adrigalsmay asway omewhatsay enigmaticway: ereaswhay inway ethay efacepray otay ishay ollectioncay ofway Anticumcay anticorumcay (Ongsay ofway Ongssay) otetsmay (1584) ehay enouncedray ethay ettingsay ofway ofanepray extstay, onlyway otway earsyay aterlay ehay asway ackbay inway intpray ithway Ookbay IIWAY ofway ishay ecularsay adrigalsmay (omesay ofway esethay eingbay amongway ethay inestfay ompositionscay inway ethay ediummay).[2] Ehay ublishedpay ustjay otway ollectionscay ofway adrigalsmay ithway ofanepray extstay, oneway inway 1555 andway anotherway inway 1586.[2] Ethay otherway otway ollectionscay ereway iritualspay adrigalsmay, away enregay elovedbay ybay ethay oponentspray ofway ethay Ountercay-Eformationray.[2]

Alestrina'spay assesmay owshay owhay ishay ompositionalcay ylestay evelopedday overway imetay.[2] Ishay Issamay inesay ominenay eemssay otay avehay eenbay articularlypay attractiveway otay Ohannjay Ebastiansay Achbay, owhay udiedstay andway erformedpay itway ilewhay itingwray ethay Assmay inway BAY inormay.[6] Ostmay ofway Alestrina'spay assesmay appearedway inway irteenthay olumesvay intedpray etweenbay 1554 andway 1601, ethay astlay evensay ublishedpay afterway ishay eathday.[2][7]

Oneway ofway ishay ostmay importantway orksway, ethay Issamay Apaepay Arcellimay (Opepay Arcellusmay Assmay), ashay eenbay istoricallyhay associatedway ithway erroneousway informationway involvingway ethay Ouncilcay ofway Enttray.  Accordingway otay isthay aletay (ichwhay ormsfay ethay asisbay ofway Anshay Itzner'spfay operaway Alestrinapay), itway asway omposedcay inway orderway otay ersuadepay ethay Ouncilcay ofway Enttray atthay away aconiandray anbay onway ethay olyphonicpay eatmenttray ofway exttay inway acredsay usicmay (asway opposedway, atthay isway, otay away oremay irectlyday intelligibleway omophonichay eatmenttray) asway unnecessaryway.[8] Oweverhay, oremay ecentray olarshipschay owsshay atthay isthay assmay asway inway actfay omposedcay eforebay ethay ardinalscay onvenedcay otay iscussday ethay anbay (ossiblypay asway uchmay asway entay earsyay eforebay).[8] Istoricalhay ataday indicatesway atthay ethay Ouncilcay ofway Enttray, asway anway officialway odybay, evernay actuallyway annedbay anyway urchchay usicmay andway ailedfay otay akemay anyway ulingray orway officialway atementstay onway ethay ubjectsay.  Esethay oriesstay originatedway omfray ethay unofficialway ointspay-ofway-iewvay ofway omesay Ouncilcay attendeesway owhay iscussedday eirthay ideasway ithway osethay otnay ivypray otay ethay Ouncil'scay eliberationsday. Osethay opinionsway andway umorsray avehay, overway enturiescay, eenbay ansmutedtray intoway ictionalfay accountsway, utpay intoway intpray, andway oftenway incorrectlyway aughttay asway istoricalhay actfay. Ilewhay Alestrina'spay ompositionalcay otivationsmay areway otnay ownknay, ehay aymay avehay eenbay itequay onsciouscay ofway ethay eednay orfay intelligibleway exttay; oweverhay, isthay asway otnay otay onformcay ithway anyway octrineday ofway ethay Ountercay-Eformationray,[8] ecausebay onay uchsay octrineday existsway.  Ishay aracteristicchay ylestay emainedray onsistentcay omfray ethay 1560say untilway ethay endway ofway ishay ifelay.  Oche'sray ypothesishay atthay Alestrina'spay eeminglysay ispassionateday approachway otay expressiveway orway emotiveway extstay ouldcay avehay esultedray omfray ishay avinghay otay oducepray anymay otay orderway, orway omfray away eliberateday ecisionday atthay anyway intensityway ofway expressionway asway unbecomingway inway urchchay usicmay, eflectsray odernmay expectationsway aboutway expressiveway eedomfray andway underestimatesway ethay extentway otay ichwhay ethay oodmay ofway Alestrina'spay ettingssay isway adaptedway otay ethay iturgicallay occasionsway orfay ichwhay ethay extstay ereway etsay, atherray anthay ethay inelay-ybay-inelay eaningmay ofway ethay exttay, andway ependsday onway ethay istinctiveday aracterschay ofway ethay urchchay odesmay andway ariationsvay inway ocalvay oupinggray orfay expressiveway effectway. Erformingpay editionsway andway ecordingsray ofway Alestrinapay avehay endedtay otay avourfay ishay orksway inway ethay oremay amiliarfay odesmay andway andardstay (ATBSAY) oicingsvay, underway-epresentingray ethay expressiveway arietyvay ofway ishay ettingssay.

Ethay 'Alestrinapay Ylestay' Edit

Oneway ofway ethay allmarkshay ofway Alestrina'spay usicmay isway atthay issonancesday areway ypicallytay elegatedray otay ethay "eakway" eatsbay inway away easuremay.[9] Isthay oducedpray away oothersmay andway oremay onsonantcay ypetay ofway olyphonypay ichwhay isway ownay onsideredcay otay ebay efinitiveday ofway atelay Enaissanceray usicmay, ivengay Alestrina'spay ositionpay asway Europe'sway eadinglay omposercay (alongway ithway Orlandeway eday Assuslay) inway ethay akeway ofway Osquinjay esday Ezpray (day. 1521). Ethay "Alestrinapay ylestay" aughttay inway ollegecay oursescay overingcay Enaissanceray ounterpointcay isway oftenway asedbay onway ethay odificationcay ybay ethay 18thay-enturycay omposercay andway eoristthay Ohannjay Osephjay Uxfay, ublishedpay asway Adusgray adway Arnassumpay (Epsstay otay Arnassuspay, 1725). Itingcay Alestrinapay asway ishay odelmay, Uxfay ividedday ounterpointcay intoway ivefay eciesspay (encehay ethay ermtay "eciesspay ounterpointcay"), esignedday asway exercisesway orfay ethay udentstay, ichwhay eployedday ogressivelypray oremay elaborateway ythmicrhay ombinationscay ofway oicesvay ilewhay adheringway otay ictstray armonichay andway elodicmay equirementsray. Ethay ethodmay asway idelyway adoptedway, andway asway ethay ainmay asisbay ofway ontrapuntalcay ainingtray inway ethay 19thay enturycay, utbay Uxfay adhay introducedway away umbernay ofway implificationssay otay ethay Alestrinapay ylestay, otablynay ethay obligatoryway useway ofway away antuscay irmusfay inway emibrevessay, ichwhay ereway orrectedcay ybay aterlay authorsway uchsay asway Udknay Eppesenjay andway RAY. Oway. Orrismay. Alestrina'spay usicmay onformscay inway anymay aysway otay Ux'sfay ulesray, articularlypay inway ethay ifthfay eciesspay, utbay oesday otnay itfay ishay edagogicalpay ormatfay. Ethay ainmay insightway, atthay ethay "urepay" ylestay ofway olyphonypay achievedway ybay Alestrinapay ollowedfay anway invariableway etsay ofway ylisticstay andway ombinationalcay equirementsray, asway ustifiedjay. Ux'sfay anualmay asway endorsedway ybay ishay ontemporarycay JAY SAY Achbay, owhay imselfhay arrangedway otway ofway Alestrina'spay assesmay orfay erformancepay.

Accordingway otay Uxfay, Alestrinapay adhay establishedway andway ollowedfay esethay asicbay uidelinesgay:

  • Ethay owflay ofway usicmay isway ynamicday, otnay igidray orway aticstay.
  • Elodymay ouldshay ontaincay ewfay eapslay etweenbay otesnay. (Eppesenjay: "Ethay inelay isway ethay artingstay ointpay ofway Alestrina'spay ylestay".)[9]
  • Ifway away eaplay occursway, itway ustmay ebay allsmay andway immediatelyway ounteredcay ybay epwisestay otionmay inway ethay oppositeway irectionday.
  • Issonancesday areway otay ebay onfinedcay otay uspensionssay, assingpay otesnay andway eakway eatsbay. Ifway oneway allsfay onway away ongstray eatbay (inway away uspensionsay) itway ustmay ebay immediatelyway esolvedray.

Eputationray Edit

Alestrinapay asway amousfay inway ishay ayday, andway ifway anythingway, ishay eputationray increasedway afterway ishay eathday. Onservativecay usicmay ofway ethay Omanray oolschay ontinuedcay otay ebay ittenwray inway ishay ylestay (ichwhay inway ethay 17thay enturycay amecay otay ebay ownknay asway ethay imapray aticapray) ybay uchsay udentsstay ofway ishay asway Iovannigay Ariamay Aninonay, Uggieroray Iovanelligay, Arcangeloway Ivellicray, Eofilotay Argarigay, Ancescofray Orianosay, andway Egoriogray Allegriway. Itway isway alsoway oughtthay atthay Alvatoresay Accosay aymay avehay eenbay away udentstay ofway Alestrinapay, asway ellway asway Iovannigay Agonidray, owhay aterlay entway onway otay ecomebay oirmasterchay inway ethay urchchay ofway SAY. Iovannigay inway Ateranolay.[4] Asway atelay asway ethay 1750say, Alestrina'spay ylestay asway illstay ethay eferenceray orfay omposerscay orkingway inway ethay otetmay ormfay, asway ancay ebay eensay ybay Ancescofray Arsanti'sbay Eisay Antifonesway 'inway ethay ylestay ofway Alestrinapay' (cay. 1750; ublishedpay ybay [Eterpay] Elckerway, cay. 1762).

Uchmay esearchray onway Alestrinapay asway oneday inway ethay 19thay enturycay ybay Iuseppegay Ainibay, owhay ublishedpay away onographmay inway 1828 ichwhay ademay Alestrinapay amousfay againway andway einforcedray ethay alreadyway existingway egendlay atthay ehay asway ethay "Avioursay ofway Urchchay Usicmay" uringday ethay eformsray ofway ethay Ouncilcay ofway Enttray.[7] Ethay 19thay enturycay oclivitypray orfay erohay-orshipway isway edominantpray inway isthay onographmay, oweverhay, andway isthay ashay emainedray ithway ethay omposercay otay omesay egreeday otay ethay esentpray ayday. Anshay Itzner'spfay operaway Alestrinapay owsshay isthay attitudeway atway itsway eakpay.[7][8]

Itway isway onlyway ecentlyray, ithway ethay iscoveryday andway ublicationpay ofway away eatgray ealday ofway ithertohay unknownway orway orgottenfay usicmay ybay ariousvay Enaissanceray omposerscay, atthay itway ashay eenbay ossiblepay otay operlypray assessway Alestrinapay inway away istoricalhay ontextcay.[2] Oughthay Alestrinapay epresentsray atelay Enaissanceray usicmay ellway, othersway uchsay asway Orlandeway eday Assuslay (away Ancofray-Emishflay omposercay owhay alsoway entspay omesay ofway ishay earlyway areercay inway Italyway) andway Illiamway Yrdbay ereway arguablyway oremay ersatilevay.[2] 20thay andway 21stay enturycay olarshipschay ybay andway argelay etainsray ethay iewvay atthay Alestrinapay asway away ongstray andway efinedray omposercay osewhay usicmay epresentsray away ummitsay ofway echnicaltay erfectionpay, ilewhay emphasizingway atthay omesay ofway ishay ontemporariescay ossessedpay equallyway individualway oicesvay evenway ithinway ethay onfinescay ofway "oothsmay olyphonypay". Asway away esultray, omposerscay ikelay Assuslay andway Yrdbay asway ellway asway Omastay Uislay eday Ictoriavay avehay increasinglyway omecay otay enjoyway omparablecay eputationsray.

Erethay areway otway omprehensivecay editionsway ofway Alestrina'spay orksway: away 33-olumevay editionway ublishedpay ybay Eitkopfbray andway HAYäelrtay, inway Eipziglay Ermanygay etweenbay 1862 andway 1894 editedway ybay Anzfray Averxay Aberlhay, andway away 34-olumevay editionway ublishedpay inway ethay idmay entiethtway enturycay, ybay Atellifray Alerascay, inway Omeray, Italyway editedway ybay RAY. Asimiricay andway othersway.

Ilmfay Edit

Inway 2009 away ilmfay aboutway ethay omposercay asway oducedpray ybay Ermangay elevisiontay ZDFAY/Arteway. Itletay: Alestrinapay - Incepray ofway Usicmay, irectedday ybay Eorggay Intrupbray.[10]

Eferencesray Edit

  1. A eulogy gives his age as 68, and on that basis Grove gives a birthdate "almost certainly between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526" (The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., s.v. "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da" by Lewis Lockwood, Noel O'Regan, and Jessie Ann Owens).
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Jerome Roche, Palestrina (Oxford Studies of Composers, 7; New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), Template:ISBN.
  3. Manuel Mendes, António Carreira, Duarte Lobo, Filipe de Magalhães, Fr. Manuel Cardoso, João Lourenço and Pero do Porto, among many others.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Zoe Kendrick Pyne, Giovanni Pierluigi di Palestrina: His Life and Times (London: Bodley Head, 1922).
  5. Template:Cite book
  6. Christoph Wolff, Der Stile Antico in der Musik Johann Sebastian Bachs: Studien zu Bachs Spätwerk (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1968), pp. 224–225.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 James Garrat, Palestrina and the German Romantic Imagination (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 John Bokina, Opera and Politics (New York: Yale University Press, 1997), pp. 129–131.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Knud Jeppesen, Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century, trans. Glen Haydon (with a new foreword by Alfred Mann; New York: Prentice-Hall, 1939, repr. New York: Dover, 1992).
  10. Internet Movie Database

Ourcessay Edit

Template:Refbegin

  • Article "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da", in: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. Template:ISBN
  • Benjamin, Thomas, The Craft of Modal Counterpoint, 2nd ed. Routledge, New York, 2005. Template:ISBN (direct approach)
  • Coates, Henry, Palestrina. J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1938. (An early entry in the Master Musicians series, and, like other books in that series, combines biographical data with musicological commentary.)
  • Daniel, Thomas, Kontrapunkt, Eine Satzlehre zur Vokalpolyphonie des 16. Jahrhunderts. Verlag Dohr, 2002. Template:ISBN
  • Della Sciucca, Marco, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. L'Epos, Palermo, 2009. Template:ISBN
  • Johann Joseph Fux, The Study of Counterpoint (Gradus ad Parnassum). Tr. Alfred Mann. W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1965. Template:ISBN
  • Gauldin, Robert, A Practical Approach to Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint. Waveland Press, Inc., Long Grove, Illinois, 1995. Template:ISBN (direct approach, no species; contains a large and detailed bibliography)
  • Haigh, Andrew C. "Modal Harmony in the Music of Palestrina", in the festschrift Essays on Music: In Honor of Archibald Thompson Davison. Harvard University Press, 1957, pp. 111–120.
  • Jeppesen, Knud, The Style of Palestrina and the Dissonance. 2nd ed., London, 1946. (An exhaustive study of his contrapuntal technique.)
  • Jeppesen, Knud; Haydon, Glen (Translator); Foreword by Mann, Alfred. Counterpoint. New York, 1939. Available through Dover Publications, 1992. Template:ISBN
  • Lewis Lockwood, Noel O'Regan, Jessie Ann Owens: "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da". Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed 7 July 2007), (subscription access)
  • Meier, Bernhard, The Modes of Classical Vocal Polyphony, Described According to the Sources. Broude Brothers Limited, 1988. Template:ISBN
  • Morris, R.O., Contrapuntal Technique in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford University Press, 1978. Template:ISBN (out of print; one of the first attempts at "direct approach", meaning Morris does away with Fux' five species).
  • Motte, Diether de la, Kontrapunkt. 1981 Bärenreiter-Verlag, Kassel. Template:ISBN / 3-7618-4371-2 (this text is in German; great, though!)
  • Pyne, Zoe Kendrick, Giovanni Pierluigi di Palestrina: His Life and Times, Bodley Head, London, 1922.
  • Reese, Gustave, Music in the Renaissance. W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1954. Template:ISBN
  • Roche, Jerome, Palestrina. Oxford University Press, 1970. Template:ISBN
  • Schubert, Peter, Modal Counterpoint, Renaissance Style, 2nd edition. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Template:ISBN (guidelines for writing and analyzing 16th-century music).
  • Stewart, Robert, An Introduction to Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint and Palestrina's Musical Style. Ardsley House, Publishers, 1994. Template:ISBN
  • Stove, R. J., Prince of Music: Palestrina and His World, Quakers Hill Press, Sydney, 1990. Template:ISBN (biographical rather than musicological in nature; is wholly devoid of staff-notation extracts; but corrects some errors found in Z. K. Pyne and elsewhere).
  • Swindale, Owen, Polyphonic Composition, Oxford University Press, 1962. (Out of print, no ISBN available.)

Template:Refend

Externalway inkslay Edit

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